The cohort study analyzed a subset of 16,515 participants from the VITAL study and found that vitamin D levels increased less over a two year period in participants with higher BMI. Researchers hypothesize that this is due to a blunted metabolism and lowered amount of circulating (i.e., active) vitamin D in the blood in individuals with overweight or obesity.
Evidence shows a clear inverse relationship between adipose tissue and vitamin D status2, and this correlation subsequently impacts the likelihood that individuals with higher BMIs may reap the proactive health benefits demonstrated in previous studies (e.g., reduced cancer risk, cancer mortality, and autoimmune disease prevalence).
Does evidence show that maintaining healthy vitamin D levels can help reduce the likelihood of developing cancer or an autoimmune disease? Yes. However, current research also indicates that your body composition plays a massive role in how much vitamin D is stored in your adipose tissue (i.e., your body fat) versus the amount available for your cells to use.